Libel and slander – Defamatory words. Having outlined the meaning and effect of, and the proper approach to, s 1(1) of the Defamation Act 2013, the Court of Appeal, Civil Division, held that, whatever doubts there were about the judge's approach, he had reached a conclusion as to the overall outcome which he had been fully justified in reaching. Accordingly, it dismissed the defendants' appeal against the judge's decision that the defendants' articles had involved publication of defamatory statements which had caused, or had been likely to cause, serious harm to the claimant.