European Union – Immigration. Although art 4 of Directive 2011/95/EU did not prevent the determining authority or the courts or tribunals seised of an action against a decision of that authority from ordering, in circumstances where the applicant's asylum application had been based on a fear of persecution on grounds of sexual orientation, that an expert's report be obtained for the purpose of providing an indication of the applicant's sexual orientation, the procedures for recourse to such a report had to be consistent with, in particular, the fundamental rights guaranteed by the Charter of the Fundamental Rights of the European Union. The Court of Justice of the European Union so ruled in a preliminary ruling in proceedings between the applicant Nigerian national, and the respondent Office for Immigration and Citizenship, Hungary, concerning the latter's decision to reject the applicant's asylum application.