European Union – Immigration. Article 4 of Directive (EU) 2011/95 had t be interpreted as meaning that, in carrying out the assessment of an application for international protection on an individual basis, account should be taken of the threat or persecution and of serious harm in respect of a family member of the applicant for the purpose of determining whether the applicant was, because of his family tie to the person at risk, himself exposed to such threat. The Court of Justice of the European Union so held, among other things, in a preliminary ruling concerning the rejection by the respondent Belgian authority of the first applicant's application for international protection.